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Division of Radiation Safety

We provide education and information on research activities related to radioisotopes, such as the safety measures in place at facilities, notifications of radioisotope use, changes, and permits as well as the health management of the users and safety guidance and information.

Research focus:
Our division investigates the fundamental events occurring in immune cells during an immune response to transplant antigens and ischemia/reperfusion injuries. We aim to understand the basic processes that control T-cell activation and tolerance and develop novel immunosuppressive agents, antibodies, and siRNA using rodent organ transplantation models and in vitro systems. In addition, we have proposed several new approaches for cell-based immunotherapy, including regulatory T cells, iPS-cells-derived regulatory dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells in transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, we are promoting basic research to develop new anticancer drugs using cancer models and to elucidate their mechanism of action.



  • Xiao-Kang Li
    Chief, Division of Transplantation Immunology / Division of Radiation Safety


  • Hu Xin



  1. Ma K, Que WT, Hu X, Guo WZ, Gu EL, Zhong L, Morello V, Cazzanti M, Michieli P, Takahara T, Li Xiao K*. A MET-agonistic antibody accelerates cirrhotic liver regeneration and improves mouse survival following partial hepatectomy. Liver Transplant (In press).
  2. Shui YF, Hu X, Hirano H, Kusano K, Tsukamoto H, Li MQ, Hasumi K, Guo WZ, Li Xiao K*. β-glucan from Aureobasidium pullulans augments the anti-tumor immune responses through activated tumor-associated dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol (In press).
  3. Du XX, Que WT, Hu X, Yu X, Guo WZ, Zhang SJ, Li Xiao K*. Oridonin prolongs the survival of mouse cardiac allografts by attenuating the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway. Frontiers in Immunology 12: 719574; 2021.
  4. Hu X, Que WT, Hirano H, Wang ZD, Nozawa N, Ishii T, Ishizuka M, Ito H, Takahashi K, Nakajima M, Tanaka T, Zhu P, Guo WZ, Li Xiao K*. 5-ALA/SFC enhanced the antitumor effects of PD-L1 blockade via regulated exhaustion T cell metabolism in melanoma model. Cancer Science 112(7):2652-2663; 2021.
  5. Matsuda Y, Watanabe T. Li Xiao K. Approaches for Controlling Antibody-Mediated Allograft Rejection Through Targeting B cells. Frontiers in Immunology 12: 682334; 2021.
  6. Wang Z, Ma K, Fujino M, Kusano K, Yi SQ, Iwai A, Li Xiao K*. The effects of oral administration of Aureobasidium pullulans-cultured fluid containing β-glucan on concanavalin A injection in mice. Heliyon 7(6): e07277; 2021.
  7. Liu C, Wang ZD, Hu X, Ito H, Takahashi K, Nakajima M, Tanaka T, Zhu P, Li Xiao K*. 5-aminolevulinic acid combined with sodium ferrous citrate ameliorated lupus nephritis in a mouse chronic graft-versus-host disease model. Int Immunopharmacol 96:107626; 2021.
  8. Zheng QY, Zhang SJ, Guo WZ, Li Xiao K*. The unique immunomodulatory properties of MSC-derived exosomes in organ transplantation. Frontiers in Immunology 12: 659621; 2021.
  9. Hirano S, Aoki Y, Kurokawa R, Li Xiao K, Ichimaru N, Takahara S, Takefuji Y. Protective effects of hydrogen gas inhalation on radiation-induced bone marrow damage in cancer patients: a retrospective observational study. Medical Gas Research 11(3):104-109; 2021.
  10. Li SW, Takahara T, Que WT, Fujino M, Guo WZ, Hirano S, Ye LP, Li Xiao K*. Hydrogen-rich water protects liver injury in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis though HO-1 enhancement via IL-10 and Sirt 1 signaling. Am J Physiol Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiol 320(4): G450-463; 2021.
  11. Que WT, Li Xiao K*. Regulatory T Cells for the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance. In: SG-Zheng editor. Chapter 15: T Regulatory Cells in Human Health and Diseases. Springer Publishers Inc., pp.289-302, 2021.
  12. Zhao J, Que WT, Du XX, Fujino M, Ichimaru N, Ueta H, Tokuda N, Guo WZ, Zabrocki P, Haard HD, Nonomura N, Li Xiao K*. Monotherapy with anti-CD70 antibody causes long-term mouse cardiac allograft acceptance with induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells. Frontiers in Immunology 11: 555996; 2021.
  13. Matsuda Y, Hiramitsu T, Li Xiao K, Watanabe T. Characteristics of immunoglobulin M type antibodies of different origins from the immunologic and clinical viewpoints and their application in controlling antibody-mediated allograft rejection. Pathogens 10(1), 4; 2021.


  1. Wang ZD, Ma K, Liu C, Hu X, Que WT, Ito H, Takahashi K, Nakajima M, Tanaka T, Ren K, Guo WZ, Yi SQ, Li Xiao K*. 5-Aminolevulinic acid combined with sodium ferrous ameliorated liver injury in a murine acute graft-versus-host disease model by reducing inflammation responses through PGC-1α activation. Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics 14(6):304-312; 2020.
  2. Que WT, Guo WZ, Li Xiao K*. Manipulation of regulatory dendritic cells for induction transplantation tolerance. Frontiers in Immunology 11:582658; 2020.
  3. Que WT, Hu X, Fujino M, Terayama H, Sakabe K, Fukunishi N, Zhu P, Yi SQ, Yamada Y, Zhong L, Li Xiao K*. Prolonged cold ischemia time in mouse heart transplantation using supercooling preservation. Transplantation 104(9): 1879-1889; 2020.
  4. Jiang YZ, Que WT, Zhu P, Li Xiao K*. The role of diverse liver cells in liver transplantation tolerance. Frontiers in Immunology 11:1203; 2020.
  5. Sheng C, Li Xiao K*. The role of immune modulation in pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. Frontiers in Medicine 7:92; 2020.
  6. Wang PP, Zhao MY, Chen ZH, Wu GJ, Fujino M, Chen Zhang C, Zhou WJ, Zhao MW, Hirano S, Li Xiao K*, Zhao LL. Hydrogen gas attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury via regulation of the MAPK/ HO-1/PGC-1α pathway in neonatal rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020:6978784; 2020.
  7. Wang J, Liu C, Que W, Fujino M, Tong G, Yan H, Li Xiao K*. Immunomodulatory effects of Salvianolic acid B in a spontaneous abortion mouse model. J Reprod Immunol. 137:103075. 2020.


  1. Liu C, Fujino M, Zhu S, Isaka Y, Ito H, Takahashi K, Nakajima M, Tanaka T, Zhu P, Li Xiao K*. 5-ALA/SFC enhances HO-1 expression through the MAPK/Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and attenuates murine tubular epithelial cell apoptosis. FEBS Open Bio. 9(11): 1928-1938; 2019.
  2. Liu C, Zhu P, Fujino M, Zhu S, Ito H, Takahashi K, Nakajima M, Tanaka T, Zhuang J, Li Xiao K*. 5-ALA/SFC attenuated binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 43(8): 1651-1661; 2019.
  3. Wang J, Liu C, Fujino M, Tong G, Zhang Q, Li Xiao K*, Yan H. Stem cells as a resource for treatment infertility-related diseases. Curr Mol Med. 19(8): 539-546; 2019.
  4. Wu G, Chen Z, Wang P, Zhao M, Fujino M, Zhang C, Zhou W, Hirano SI, Li Xiao K, Zhao L. Hydrogen inhalation protects hypoxic-ischemic brain damage by attenuating inflammation and apoptosis in neonatal rats. Exp Biol Med. 244(12): 1017-1027; 2019.
  5. Zhao J, Yang XC, Fujino M, Ichimura N, Que WT, Li Xiao K*, Takahara S. Salvianolic acid B ameliorates liver injury in a murine aGvHD model by decreasing inflammatory responses via upregulation of HO-1. Transpl Immunol. 55: 101203; 2019.
  6. Toyama S, Migita O, Fujino M, Kunieda T, Kosuga M, Fukuhara Y, Nagahara Y, Li Xiao K*. Okuyama T. New treatment method for mucopolysaccharidosis type VI by liver transplantation. Pediatr Int. 261(2): 180-189; 2019.
  7. Wang Y, Zenkoh J, Gerelchuluun A, Sun L, Cai S, Li Xiao K, Tsuboi K. Administration of Dendritic Cells and Anti-PD-1 Antibody Converts X-ray Irradiated Tumors into Effective in situ Vaccines. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 103(4): 958-969; 2019.
  8. Uto K, Sakamoto S, Que WT, Shimata K, Hashimoto S, Sakisaka M, Narita Y, Daiki Y, Zhong L, Yoshihiro K, Kurokawa R, Li Xiao K, Inomata Y, Hibi T. Hydrogen rich solution attenuates cold ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat liver transplantation. BMC Gastroenterol. 19(1): 25; 2019.
  9. Liu C, Zhu P, Fujino M, Isaka Y, Ito H, Takahashi K, Nakajima M, Tanaka T, Zhuang J, Li Xiao K*. 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), enhances heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression and attenuates tubulointerstitial fibrosis and renal apoptosis in chronic cyclosporine nephropathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 508(2): 583-589; 2019.


  1. Liu C, Yang X, Zhu P, Fujino M, Ito H, Takahashi K, Nakajima M, Tanaka T, Wang J, Zhuang J, Zou HJ, Li Xiao K*. Combination of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and iron prevents skin fibrosis in murine sclerodermatous grafts-versus-host disease. Exp Dermatol. 27(10): 1104-1111; 2018.
  2. Li S, Fujino M, Ichimaru N, Kurokawa R, Hirano S, Mou L, Takahara S, Takahara T, Li Xiao K*. Molecular hydrogen protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in a mouse fatty liver model via regulating HO-1 and Sirt1 expression. Sci Rep. 8(1): 14019; 2018.
  3. Li S, Fujino M, Takahara T, Li Xiao K*. Protective role of heme oxygenase-1 in fatty liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Med Mol Morphol. Aug 31. 2018.
  4. Zhao M, Yang M, Que W, Zhong L, Fujino M, Li Xiao K*. Myeloid heme oxygenase-1: a new therapeutic target in anti-inflammation. Front Biosci. 23:2001-2015; 2018.
  5. Ito H, Nishio Y, Hara T, Sugihara H, Tanaka T, Li Xiao K. Oral administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid induces heme oxygenase-1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy human subjects in combination with ferrous iron. Eur J Pharmacol. 833: 25-33; 2018.
  6. Hatayama N, Hirai S, Naito M, Terayama H, Araki J, Yokota H, Matsushita M, Li Xiao K, Itoh M. Preservation of rat limbs by hyperbaric carbon monoxide and oxygen. Sci Rep. 8(1): 6627; 2018.
  7. Joyce D, Fujino M, Morita M, Araki R, Fung J, Qian S, Lu L, Li Xiao K*. Induced pluripotent stem cells-derived myeloid-derived suppressor cells regulate the CD8+ T cell response. Stem Cell Res. 29:32-41; 2018.
  8. Zhou WC, Wang Y, Fujino M, Shi LM, Jin L, Li Xiao K*, Wang JC. A standardized fold change (SFC) method for microarray differential expression analysis used to reveal genes involved in acute rejection in murine allograft models. FEBS Open Bio 8(3): 481-490; 2018.


  1. Li S, Takahara T, Fujino M, Fukuhara Y, Sugiyama T, Li Xiao K*, Takahara S. Astaxanthin prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury of the steatotic liver in mice. PLoS One. 12(11): e0187810; 2017.
  2. Yang X, Liu C, Fujino M, Yang J, Li Xiao K*, Zou HJ. A modified graft-versus-host-induced model for systemic sclerosis, with pulmonary fibrosis in Rag2-deficient mice. FEBS Open Bio 7(9): 1316-1327; 2017.
  3. Cai SJ, Hou JG, Fujino M, Zhang Q, Ichimaru N, Takahara S, Araki R, Lu L, Chen JM, Zhuang J, Zhu P, Li Xiao K*. iPSC-derived Regulatory Dendritic Cells Inhibit Allograft Rejection via Generating Alloantigen-specific Regulatory T Cells. Stem Cell Reports 8(5): 1174-1189; 2017.
  4. Yang XC, Fujino M, Cai SJ, Li SW, Liu, C, Li Xiao K*. Genetic polymorphisms of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 in primary biliary cholangitis: a meta-analysis. Journal of Immunology Research 2017:5295164; 2017.
  5. Abe T, Yazawa K, Fujino M, Imamura R, Hatayama N, Kakuta Y, Tsutahara K, Okumi M, Ichimaru, Kaimori J, Isaka Y, Seki K, Takahara S, Li Xiao K*, Nonomura. N High-pressure carbon monoxide preserves rat kidney grafts from apoptosis and inflammation. Lab Invest 97(4): 468-477; 2017.

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